Saint Anselm of Canterbury (–) was the outstanding . And in the Proslogion Anselm sets out to convince “the fool,” that is, the. PROSLOGION. CON LAS RÉPLICAS DE GAUNILÓN Y ANSELMO by San Anselmo de Canterbury and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles. 3. Anselmo de Canterbury – Proslogion (fragmento).pdf – Download as PDF File . pdf) or read online.

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Anselmo d’Aosta after his birthplace and Anselm of Bec French: Anselme du Bec after his monasterywas an Italian [4] Benedictine monkabbotphilosopher and theologian of the Catholic Churchwho held the office of archbishop of Canterbury from to After his death, he was canonized as a saint ; his feast day is 21 April.

Beginning at BecAnselm composed dialogues and treatises with a rational and philosophical approach, sometimes causing him proslkgion be credited as the founder of Scholasticism. Despite his lack of recognition in this field in his own time, Anselm is now famed as the originator of the ontological argument for the existence of God and of the cnaterbury theory of atonement.

As archbishop, he defended the church’s interests in England amid the Investiture Controversy. While in exile, he helped guide the Greek bishops of southern Italy to adopt Roman rites at the Council of Bari.

Anselm of Canterbury – Wikipedia

Humbert the White-Handedcount of Maurienneso distinguished himself that he was granted a new county carved out of the secular holdings of the less helpful bishop of Aosta. Humbert’s son Otto was subsequently permitted to inherit the extensive march of Susa through his wife Adelaide in preference to her uncle’s families, who had supported the effort to establish an independent Kingdom of Italy under William the Great of Aquitaine. Otto and Adelaide’s xanterbury lands then controlled the most important passes in the western Alps and formed the county of Savoy whose dynasty would later rule the kingdoms ve Sardinia and Italy.

Records during this period are scanty, but both sides of Anselm’s immediate family appear to have been dispossessed by these decisions [8] in favour of their extended relations. Ermenberga appears to have been the wealthier of the two. Gundulph moved to his wife’s town, [7] where she held a palace, likely near the cathedral, along with a villa in the valley.

Folceraldus, Haimo, and Rainaldus. The first repeatedly attempted to impose on Anselm’s success but was rebuffed owing to his ties to another monastery; the latter two Anselm attempted in vain to persuade to join his community. At the age of fifteen, Anselm desired to enter a monastery but, failing to obtain his father’s consent, he was refused by the abbot.

Following the death of his mother, probably at the birth of his sister Richera, [20] Anselm’s father repented his earlier lifestyle but professed his new faith with a severity that the boy found likewise unbearable.

His father having died, he consulted with Lanfranc as to whether to return to his estates and employ their income in providing alms or to renounce them, becoming a hermit or a monk at Bec or Cluny. Anselm overcame his hostility first by praising, indulging, and privileging him in all things despite his hostility and then, when his affection and trust were gained, gradually withdrawing all preference until he upheld the strictest obedience. Under Anselm’s direction, Bec became the foremost seat of learning in Europe, [10] attracting students from France, Italyand elsewhere.

Following the Norman Conquest of England indevoted lords had anselmk the abbey extensive lands across the Channel. Believing his sinful behavior was responsible, [42] he summoned Anselm to hear his confession canterhury administer last rites.

From the mid-8th century, it had become customary canterbyry metropolitan bishops could not be consecrated without a woolen pallium given or sent by the pope himself. It has been argued whether Anselm’s reluctance to take the see was sincere or not.

Scholars such as Southern [53] and Kent [52] maintain Anselm’s honest preference was to remain at Bec. Anselm had initially considered becoming a hermit [54] and, naturally drawn to contemplation, he likely would have cared proslogioj for such a political office at the best of times and disliked it all the more amid his own troubled age.

She further notes that his approach improved his negotiating position and that he finally acted at the moment that gained him the greatest leverage in advancing the interests of his see and the reform movement within the church. As archbishop, Anselm maintained his monastic ideals, including stewardship, prudence, and proper instruction, prayer and contemplation.

Proslogiin the work was largely handled by Christ Church ‘s priors Ernulf — and Conrad —Anselm’s episcopate also saw the expansion of Canterbury Cathedral from Lanfranc’s initial plans. Anselm not only refused, he further pressed the king to fill England’s other vacant positions, permit bishops canterury meet freely in councils, and to allow Anselm to resume enforcement of canon lawparticularly against incestuous marriages[19] until he was ordered to silence.


The next day, William ordered the bishops not to treat Anselm as ce primate or as Canterbury’s archbishop, as he openly adhered to Urban. The bishops sided with the rposlogion, the Bishop of Durham ee his case [73] and even advising William to depose and exile Anselm. William’s greatest desire was for Anselm to be removed from office. Walter said that “there was good reason to expect a successful issue in accordance with the king’s wishes” but, upon William’s open acknowledgement of Urban as pope, Walter refused to depose the archbishop.

William then tried to personally bestow the pallium to Anselm, an act connoting the church’s subservience to the throne, and ansrlmo again refused. However, inthe Welsh had begun to recover their lands from the Marcher Lords and William’s invasion had accomplished little; two larger forays were made in against Cadwgan in Powys and Gruffudd in Gwynedd. These were also unsuccessful and William was compelled to erect a series of border fortresses.

The negotiations ended with Anselm being “given the choice of exile or total submission”: Anselm chose to depart in October Urban refused but commissioned him to prepare a defence of the Western doctrine of the procession of the Holy Spirit against representatives from canterburh Greek Church. At the Council of Bari in October, Anselm delivered his defence of the Filioque and the use of unleavened bread in the Proslobion before bishops. Eadmer credited Anselm with restraining the pope from prosolgion him, [89] although others attribute Urban’s politic nature.

William Rufus was killed hunting in the New Forest on 2 August His brother Prosslogion was present and moved quickly to secure the throne before the return of his elder brother Robertduke of Normandyfrom the First Crusade. Henry invited Anselm to return, pledging in his letter to submit himself to the archbishop’s counsel. Meanwhile, Anselm publicly supported Henry against the claims and threatened invasion of his brother Robert Curthose.

Anselm wooed wavering barons to the king’s cause, emphasizing the religious nature of their oaths and duty of loyalty; [] he supported the deposition of Ranulf Flambardthe disloyal new bishop of Durham ; [] and he threatened Robert with excommunication. Anselm held a council at Lambeth Palace which found that Henry’s beloved Matilda had not technically become a nun and anseelmo thus eligible to wed and become queen. The council prohibited marriage, cannterburyand drunkenness to all those in holy orders, [] condemned sodomy [] and simony[61] and regulated clerical dress.

Upon their rposlogion, the three bishops he had dispatched on his second prosloyion to the pope claimed—in defiance of Paschal’s sealed letter to Anselm, his public acts, and the testimony of the two monks who had accompanied them—that the pontiff poslogion been receptive to Henry’s counsel and secretly approved of Anselm’s submission to the crown.

After this ruling, Anselm received a letter forbidding his return and withdrew to Lyons to await Paschal’s response. Henry would forsake lay investiture if Anselm obtained Paschal’s permission for clerics to do homage for their lands; [] [] Henry’s ahselmo [93] and counselors’ excommunications were to be lifted provided they annselmo him to obey the papacy Anselm performed this act on his own authority and latter had to answer for it to Paschal ; [] the revenues of Canterbury would be returned to the archbishop; and priests would no longer be permitted to marry.

Even after this, Anselm refused to return to England. Henry was forced to make further concessions.

Saint Anselm

He restored prosslogion Canterbury all rposlogion churches that had been seized by William or during Anselm’s exile, promising that nothing more would be taken from them and even providing Anselm with a security payment. Anselm returned to England before the new year. Inthe Concordat of London formalized the agreements between the oroslogion and archbishop, [62] Henry formally renouncing the right of English kings to invest the bishops of the church.

From his deathbed, Anselm anathematized all who failed to recognize Canterbury’s primacy over all the English church. This ultimately forced Henry canterbuyr order Thomas to confess his obedience to Anselm’s successor. He died on Holy Wednesday21 April Herring ordered his dean to look into the matter, saying that while “the parting with the rotten Remains of a Rebel to his King, a Slave to the Popedom, and an Enemy to the married Clergy all this Anselm was ” would be no great matter, he likewise canterbuey make no Conscience of palming on the Simpletons any other old Bishop with the Name of Anselm”.

At that time, his canterburt would presumably have been placed in a shrine and its contents “disposed of” during the Reformation. Anselm held that faith necessarily precedes reason, but that reason can expand upon faith: For this too I believe since, unless I first believe, I shall not understand”. Stylistically, Anselm’s treatises take two basic forms, dialogues and sustained meditations.


While at Bec, Anselm composed: While archbishop of Canterbury, he composed: In the first chapter, Anselm begins with a statement that anyone should be able to convince themselves of the existence of God through reason alone “if he is even moderately intelligent”.

These must be understood as being judged relative to a single attribute of goodness. As such, it must be the highest good and, further, “that which is supremely good is also supremely great.

There is, therefore, some one thing that is supremely good and supremely great—in other words, supreme among all existing things. A letter survives of Anselm responding to Lanfranc’s criticism of the work. The elder cleric took exception to its lack of appeals to scripture and authority.

In it, Anselm reasoned that even atheists can imagine a greatest being, having caterbury attributes that nothing greater could exist id quo nihil maius cogitari possit.

Therefore, the truly greatest possible being must necessarily exist. Further, this necessarily-existing greatest being must be God, who therefore necessarily exists.

More probably, Anselm intended his “single argument” to include most of the rest of the work as well, [] wherein he establishes the attributes of God and their compatibility with one another. Continuing to construct a being greater prislogion which nothing else can be conceived, Anselm proposes such a being must be “just, truthful, happy, and whatever it is better to be than not to be”.

The argument presented in the Proslogion has rarely seemed satisfactory [] [m] and was swiftly opposed by Gauniloa monk from the abbey of Marmoutier in Tours. This is, however, absurd, since its shore might arbitrarily be increased and in any case varies with the naselmo. Anselm’s reply Responsio or apology Liber Apologeticus [] does not address this argument directly, which has led Klima[] Grzesik[34] and others to construct replies for him and led Wolterstorff [] and others anseljo conclude that Gaunilo’s attack is definitive.

The Proslogion had already stated “anything else whatsoever other than [God] can be thought not to exist”. That entity both must exist and must be God. All of Anselm’s dialogues take the form of a lesson between a gifted and inquisitive student and a knowledgeable teacher. Except for in Cur Deus Homothe student is not identified but the teacher is always recognizably Anselm himself.

Anselm’s De Grammatico “On the Grammarian”of uncertain date, [o] deals with eliminating various paradoxes arising from the grammar of Latin nouns and adjectives [] by examining the syllogisms involved to ensure the terms in the premises agree in meaning and not merely expression.

He identifies this absolute truth with God, who therefore forms the fundamental principle both in the existence of things and the correctness of thought. He does not consider this a capacity to ‘ sin but a capacity to do good for its own sake as opposed to owing to coercion or for self-interest. All rational proslogiln seek benefit and shun harm on their own account but independent choice permits them to abandon bounds imposed by justice.

The angels who upheld justice were rewarded with such happiness that they are now incapable of sin, there being no happiness left for them to seek in opposition to the bounds of justice. Cur Deus Homo “Why God was a Man” was written from to once Anselm was already archbishop of Canterbury [25] as a response for requests to discuss the Incarnation.

Anselm of Canterbury

Anselm argues that, owing to the Fall and mankind’s fallen nature ever since, humanity has offended God. Divine justice demands restitution for sin but human beings are incapable of providing it, as all the actions of men are already obligated to the furtherance of God’s glory.

Atonement for humanity, however, could only be made through the figure of Jesusas a sinless being both fully divine and fully human. The first is that it was proper that Mary should be so pure that—apart from God—no purer being could be imagined. The second was his treatment of original sin.

Earlier theologians had held that it was transmitted from generation to generation by the sinful nature of sex.

As in his earlier works, Anselm instead held that Adam ‘s sin was borne by his descendants through the change in human nature which occurred during the Fall.

Parents were unable to establish a just nature in their children which they had never had themselves.