This article provides an up-to-date survey of hybrid fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks that leverage on the respective strengths of optical and wireless. A definitive objective of Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) systems is the meeting of different optical and wireless innovations under a solitary base keeping in mind the end. Survey Smoothly Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) Accessing Wireless Networks: Convergence and Challenges. Naseer Hwaidi Alkhazaali, Raed Abduljabbar Aljiznawi.

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Deep fiber access is a fiber-wirrless mix of technology choices, business models, and regulatory issues. More precisely, if the primary gateway fails, then all the paths to that gateway become stale and packets destined for the primary gateway are rerouted through live PGG paths. The objective of the proposed energy-aware routing algorithm is to use already existent paths and put the other FiWi network segments asleep. The presented simulation results investigated the average packet delay for CaDAR under the assumption of equally and unequally loaded ONUs.

The current global crisis is far from unexpected but rather represents a recurrent historical event that is typical for capitalist economies. According to [ 92 ], there is a clear trend toward including additional mobility enhancements in future LTE releases to ensure a smooth migration from traditional network controlled to user equipment UE assisted mobility as a remedy for reducing signaling overhead via fiber interconnections between macrocells and small cells.

Given that most 4G cellular mobile network researches so far have been focusing on the achievable performance gains in the wireless front-end only without looking into the details fiber-wifeless backhaul implementations and possible backhaul bottlenecks, we identify open key research challenges for FiWi broadband access networks. LagkasPanagiotis G.

View at Scopus T. Future FiWi access networks will leverage on next-generation PON and WLAN technologies to meet the ever-increasing bandwidth requirements of new and emerging video-dominated applications and services. FTTCab is also used by cable network operators to build hybrid fiber-coax HFC networks, where the drop lines are realized through coax cables instead of twisted pairs.

As shown in Figure networkwsuppose that wireless mesh client wants to axcess with mesh client. At the downside, it must be mentioned that the proposed architecture is quite complex and costly. More specifically, the OLT manages the assignment of traffic to a large number of subcarriers, which accexs all along the optical distribution network to be demultiplexed only at the user side and vice versa.


In the first phase, the algorithm identifies the primary ONU i.

Advances in Optics

Femtocellswhich need to be more autonomous and self-adaptive than traditional small cellsare now widely deployed as small, inexpensive, and low-power BSs. A plethora of wired and wireless networking technologies exists to realize smart grid communications infrastructures [ ].

Toward this end, future broadband access networks must leverage on both optical nettworks wireless technologies and converge them seamlessly, giving rise to FiWi access networks [ 9 ]. The proposed optimal routing algorithm yields a bound on the throughput gain in FiWi networks. Optical Burst Wireless Mesh Architecture. In coming years, power grids netwoeks the United States, Europe, and other regions worldwide are expected to undergo major paradigm shifts.

Fiber to the x Network topology. A plethora of enabling optical and wireless network technologies and QoS provisioning acces exists for FiWi access networks.

Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: A survey – Semantic Scholar

It was shown by means of simulation that in terms of both average delay and packet loss RADAR clearly outperforms minimum hop, shortest path, and predictive throughput routing algorithms for a wide range of failure scenarios such as gateway, ONU, and OLT failures. In contrast, the throughput of FiWi networks decreases to a much lesser extent for increasing peer-to-peer traffic due to the above-described wireless-optical-wireless communications fiber-wirelezs of FiWi networks.

A unified analytical framework for the throughput-delay performance evaluation of a wide range of FiWi network routing algorithms was developed in [ 6970 ], taking emerging IEEE OW communications links operate at much higher carrier frequencies than their RF counterparts.

For a more detailed and comprehensive description of QoS provisioning techniques for FiWi access networks the interested reader is referred to [ 59 ].

In the coming era, millions of consumers will produce their own renewable energy and share it with each other via an integrated and seamless Energy Internetsimilar to the way we use to create and share information online nowadays.

The WLAN mesh front-end of FiWi access networks may be used surey provide WiFi offloading of rapidly increasing mobile data fiber-wirrless from cellular networks, thereby avoiding the need for capacity upgrades while at the same time helping reduce the complexity of future mobile networks. The frequent handovers may cause numerous packet losses, resulting in a significantly decreased network throughput. Otherwise, excess traffic needs to be dropped.


RoF networks have been studied for many years as an approach to integrate optical fiber and wireless networks. We are fiber-wire,ess witnessing a strong worldwide deployment of deep fiber access solutions to push netwoeks fiber closer to individual homes and businesses and to help realize FTTx networks, whereby x denotes the discontinuity between optical fiber and some other transmission medium [ 3 ].

In particular, energy generation and distribution systems play a crucial role. The optical switches have full wavelength conversion capability and interconnect the APs and CO by means of shared point-to-point lightpaths. Current requirements for CPRI are very demanding in terms of maximum line rate 9.

Especially for event-driven M2M communications, where a large number of devices become activated within a short period of time, traffic-aware random MAC protocols were shown to provide superior delay performance and robustness [ ].

FiWi networks hold great promise to change the way we live and work by replacing commuting with teleworking. The external buffers can store DTS-insensitive data packets when the links are congested and forward fiberw-ireless to the server when the links to the gateways become less congested. In fact, the throughput-delay ratio of the wireless front-end increases for a growing number tiber-wireless multiple-radio mesh routers.

It was shown for a node single-radio IEEE This is due to neetworks fact that the MMSE precoding is able to mitigate the mutual interference of the RAUs such that both mobile terminals can receive data at high data rates using the same time and frequency fbier-wireless, at the expense of a significant overhead in the uplink. FiWi access networks are instrumental in strengthening our information society while avoiding its digital divide.

The obtained measurements demonstrated that the MMSE precoding provides a large throughput gain compared to conventional noncooperative precoding.

To calculate the minimum delay path for upstream data transmissions from wireless mesh clients to the OLT, a gateway takes the current load of its collocated ONU into account and estimates the upstream delay on the EPON.