most Azerbaijanis in Iran referred to themselves as Turks. .. 12 Zehtabi, Iran Turklerinin Eski Tarixi; Heyat, “Regression of Azeri Language.” 13 E.M. 3 M.T. Zehtabi, Iran Turklerinin Eski Tarixi. Ikinci chap (Tebriz: Artun, ). 4 Rahim Rayees-Nia, Azerbaijan dar Seir-e Tarikh-e Iran, 2 vols. (Tabriz: Nima. compared with more than 20 million Azeris in Iran. The two from northwestern Iran to the Caspian Sea in the east M.T. Zehtabi, Iran Turklerinin Eski Tarixi.

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Houses were plundered; livestock was stolen. Long before I was born, an Azeri poet, Bulut Qarachorlu, had vividly depicted my location and my background: On December 3, Pishevari assured the Azerbaijnis that the national army of Azerbaijan was ready to defend the republic. The oil concession did not only mean a lion’s share of Iran’s oil for Turkelrinin, more importantly, it meant the security of Soviet borders in Iranian northern zone, particularly in the rivalry with the British and the newly arrived Americans.

British Academic Press, The oppressed and marginalized peoples of Azerbaijan and Kurdistan were among various Iranian nationalities and groups that took notice of the opportunity provided by the war and sought to implement their legitimate social, cultural and national demands.

Being an experienced revolutionary and journalist, Pishevari was aware of the extent of explosive conditions in Azerbaijan. On December 10, Qavam’s army reached Azerbaijani territory. It issued a program that granted women the right to vote; it announced that the private property would be respected but that the government would distribute to the landless farmers the state-owned lands as well as the lands of reactionary landlords who had run away from Azerbaijan.

The reform resulted in distribution of overhectares of land amongst more than one million landless peasants Tudeh ; Atabaki For the first time in the history of Muslim Middle East, universal suffrage was introduced.

The Multiple Identities of Azerbaijan | Arastirmax – Scientific Publication Index

After Reza Shah’s fall, Pishevari, along with other political prisoners, had been set free. Throughout both Republics, all the buildings belonging to National Governments, along with houses, crops, and newly constructed schools and universities were set on fire. In his reporting of the national census that had taken place in Azerbaijan in the yearhe wrote: As its first important task on the day of inauguration, the National Assembly proclaimed the autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan and designated a government under the premiership of Mir Jafar Pishevari, the founder of Azerbaijan Democratic Party.


The Soviets were very concerned about the security of their borders with Iran and an enormously beneficial oil concession meant that their active presence in Iranian affairs would be guaranteed.

Although the ADP leaders failed to lead the struggle to victory, obtainment of autonomy and unification with northern Azerbaijan have, nonetheless, remained an ideal for millions of Azeris in both sides of the river Araz. Achievements of the Tarlxi The Azerbaijan Democratic Government quickly proceeded to carry out its plans.

The Multiple Identities of Azerbaijan

The Kurdish Republic set out to follow the democratic reforms and events taking place in the neighboring Azerbaijan. Mass executions of participants, sympathizers, and those suspected of supporting the national movements were performed in public, followed by the burning of books, magazines and pamphlets published in ethnic languages.

It was these kinds of fascistic and racist attitudes that brought the sentiments of Azeri people to a boiling point and paved the way for demands for autonomy and independence through the democratic movement. In Augusthe entrusted the editorialship of Azhir to friends and returned to Azerbaijan to form the Azerbaijan Democratic Party. Shortly after the revolution however, and more significant, after the consolidation of clerical power, there did not occur any considerable change in the status of either Azeri people or Azeri language.

From the very beginning I tried to be a part of that struggle, a part of that movement for broader social justice and restoration of human dignity. More than this, in respect to issues concerning human rights, particularly women’s rights and freedom, the situation even worsened and kept deteriorating. The new regime brutally suppressed the legitimate demands of various nationalities for self-determination, placing even a greater emphasis on Persian racism as a determining factor in maintaining its power bases.

The languages of other nationalities were repressed either as an imperfect dialect of Farsi, or as an alien, non-Indo-European language, such as Turkish or Arabic.

Throughout his military career as a Cossack trooper, Reza Khan had never hidden his hatred for non-Persian Iranians. Presumably, such a political organization had existed during the Azerbaijani democratic movement. Owing to the nature of their organization, the authors adopt an Iranian nationalistic viewpoint, greatly emphasizing the territorial integrity of Iran.


Writings on Repression in Iran. The Azerbaijani Turks, who were very proud of their heritage and accomplishments, were among those most subjected to racist and chauvinistic assimilationist Aryan ideology. True, the Araz divides a nation But the earth underneath is one! Identifying the national movement as “crisis”, Fawcett tries to view the movement ‘from an Iranian perspective’ p.

Forbidden To remember my past: The Iranian army, however, looked like anything but peaceful. Undecided and perplexed, with no leaders and no commanding centers, thousands of peasants and workers laid down their arms, stood by and silently watched as Shah’s invading army plundered their belongings and murdered them one after another.

On November 23, the Central Committee of Azerbaijan Democratic Party esmi a proclamation defining its aim as the obtainment of complete autonomy for Azerbaijan. Glorification of ‘the Aryan race’ symbolized through the hegemony of Persian language soon came to dominate turklerinih Islamic regime’s propaganda machine.

Alireza Asgharzadeh The rise of European fascism and the concomitant breakout of what came to be known as the Second World War changed the balance of forces all over the globe. The invading army stayed in Azerbaijan for five years, continuing the persecution of ADP supporters.

Independent research on the movement was and is banned by both the monarchic and the Islamic regimes, respectively.

The Iranian regime took the matter to the newly founded United Nations. Due to his anti-government activities, he had been imprisoned by Reza Shah’s regime for 12 years.

The ADP encouraged women to take active part in socio-political life of the republic. After the invasion of Azerbaijan, the Shah’s army marched into the neighboring Republic of Kurdistan.

Ever since Reza Khan’s usurpation of power, all nationalities and ethnic groups tagixi Iran had been living under a constant fear, humiliation and oppression. Javadi, Hasan and K.

In May the Soviet es,i left Iran. The movement was led by Sheykh Mohammed Khiyabani, a progressive Azeri nationalist. As a result, while the ADP followed the conservative line advocated by the Soviets, the revolutionary demands of thousands of workers and peasants remained unanswered.

The Iranian Crisis of The Azerbaijani Crisis of and T.