The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State ( Cambridge Studies in Law and Society) [John Torpey] on *FREE* shipping. Daniel Nordman THE INVENTION OF THE PASSPORT Surveillance, Citizenship and the State John Torpey University of California, Irvine □H CAMBRIDGE. The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State. Front Cover · John Torpey, Professor of Sociology John Torpey. Cambridge University .
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ISBN 0 8 hbk. The bill proposed penalties for those who refused properly to identify themselves jon the state, for failure to do so “renders one culpable, manifests perverse intentions, contravenes the law.
In early March, the counterrevolutionaries of the Vendee rose again, this time en masse, and lit a torch that ignited other parts of the region. Those who departed from the route indicated in their passports, or who stopped along the way for any length torley time, were to be arrested by the national guards or departmental police and required to explain themselves.
T67 ‘. On 20 Septemberthe government therefore decreed the estab- lishment of civil status I’etat civila title denoting “standing” within a constituted political order. Here I am only echoing what I take to be common wisdom about the rise and dominance of the West during the modern age. To the east, trends toward enhanced documentary controls on move- ment received a powerful boost from Russian Czar, Peter the Great.
Globalising Law through Services and Intellectual Property 0 5 hardback 0 X paperback The vagabond is by definition a suspect. The result of this process was that workers were deprived of the capacity to produce on their own and became dependent upon wages from the owners of the means of production for their survival. The reach of the rorpey, in other words, cannot exceed its grasp.
Controversy in the Legislative Assembly over the reintroduction of passport restrictions thus grew boisterous early inas war came to seem increasingly imminent. In particular, the “penetrationist” approach has had little to say about the mechanisms adopted and employed by states to construct and sustain enduring rela- tionships between themselves and their subjects, the “social base” of their 10 COMING AND GOING reproduction.
There is something splendid about defiance of government on such an impudent scale. Two more similarly rancorous days of discussion would follow before the final result was obtained. At this point, at least, the term “foreigners” therefore applied as much to those who opposed the revolution, regardless of their “national” origins, as it did to persons not of French birth. This [shift] created for the first time a kingdomwide status of foreigner and, correlatively, an embryonic legal status of French citizen or national.
Documents such as passports and identity cards have been critical to achieving these objectives. A decree handed down by the Legislative Assembly in December required that anyone – with the exception of merchants appropriately vouched for by municipal authorities – receiving a variety of payments from the public purse had to produce a certificate attesting that he or she currently resided in the French Empire, and had done so without interruption for the previous six months.
Nor am I arguing that states’ monopolization of the legitimate means of movement is a generalization valid for all times and places; the monopolization of this authority by states emerged only grad- ually after the medieval period and paralleled states’ monopolization of the legitimate means of violence. Their efforts to implement such regulation have driven them toward the creation of the means uniquely and unambiguously to identify indi- vidual persons, whether “their own” or others.
Surveillance, Citizenship, and the State, which examines the institution of the modern passport. Far from regarding the reintroduction of passport controls as a small price to pay for defending the revolution’s larger gains, these critics saw the res- urrection of social control techniques characteristic of the ancien regimeas a reversal of the newfound freedom that the revolution had inaugurated, and therefore as likely to undermine popular support for the revolution- ary project.
Full text of “The invention of the passport : surveillance, citizenship, and the state”
Despite the Assembly’s decisive steps to guarantee free circulation when it adopted the new constitution in Septemberthose involved in constructing the new regime in France recognized that they had to be in a position to “embrace” the subjects of the state when the need to do so arose.
Finally, my deepest thanks to Caroline, who made it all worthwhile.
This would unnecessarily burden the munici- pal ppassport. Yet private entities have been reduced to the capacity of “sheriff s deputies” who participate in the regulation of movement at the behest of states.
John Torpey. The Invention of the Passport; Surveillance, Citizenship and the State
oassport I am grate- ful to Phillipa McGuinness and Sharon Mullins at Cambridge University Press for their enthusiasm about the project, and for holding the door open just a little longer than they might have liked. John Christopher Torpey born August 22, is an American academic, sociologist, and te best known for his scholarship on the state, identity, and contemporary politics. And, from long years of experience under the ancien regime, most of the French took for granted that that genie was loose on the world; perhaps, many of them must have thought, it had always been so.
I have talked about aspects of this project in venues too numerous to indicate here, but I would nonetheless like to take this opportunity to thank Charles Maier, Director of the Center for European Studies at Harvard, and Nancy Green, a distinguished historian of migration at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, for invitations to speak about this project at their respective institutions and for the helpful comments I received on those occasions.
The process also paralleled the rationalization and nationalization of poor relief, for communal obligations to provide such relief were an important source of the desire for controls on movement. Prior to the French Revolution, for example, descriptions of a person’s social standing – residence, occupation, family status, etc.
Includes bibliographical references and index. The Assembly immediately sent four representatives to announce its findings and thus, it hoped, to forestall any harm to Montmorin ‘s person or property at the hands of the angry mob.
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Beyond simply enunciating definitions and categories concerning identity, states must implement these distinctions, and they require documents in order to do so in individual cases. The phenomenon is captured nicely in Tbe Polanyi’s discussion of the emergence of “the poor” as a distinctive group in early modern England: For the advocates of the reinstitution of passport controls on the French citizenry, however, such requirements comprised a tolerable infringement on freedom in defense of the revolution’s broader achieve- ments.
In order to clarify the circumstances under which the royal retinue had sought to make off, the Assembly summoned Louis XVTs foreign minister, Montmorin, to its chambers to explain how they had come into possession of their passports. Still, the decree bespoke a vindictive mood, especially against the poor. The proposed article 2 would have required all passports to include the name, age, profession, description, domicile, and nationality of the bearer.
In March 1however, the Directory took up a proposal to change that law to make it conform to the yhe that the district directories – formerly responsible, along with the municipalities, for giving their recommendation to the departements with respect to the legitimacy of requests for passports for departure from France – had since been sup- pressed.
To paraphrase Marx, states make their own policy, “but they do not make it just as they please; they do not make it under circumstances chosen by themselves, but under circumstances directly found, given, and trans- mitted” from the outside.
This generosity only increased the admiration I had for them, which was of course what had led me to write to them in tue first place. On 7 January Assembly Member Le Coz, Bishop of the Breton departement of Ille-et-Vilaine, rose to demand that the Assembly take action on a steady stream of petitions from the departe- ments throughout France which, at least so he tne, complained of the upsurge in brigandage that had followed passlort suppression of passport controls, and pleaded with his colleagues for their reestablishment.
Eventually, the principal boundaries that counted were those not of municipalities, but of nation-states. Despite the fact that it took a harder line against footloose elements, it, too, lf unable to gain mastery over the country. Alongside Christian TyeTorpey has written on the legal and cultural integration of Islam into Western liberal democracies, comparing the United States, Germany, France, and Canada.
The resurrection of passport controls in late nineteenthcentury Germany. What foreign power would desire the friendship of a government wracked with ojhn division and sacrificing its principles to its needs and its passions?
Full text of ” The invention of the passport: Although they go unmentioned in the text of the decree, this measure was obviously directed at the emigres, who were thought to have rendered themselves unworthy of public largesse during the previous six months by fleeing the patrie’m its hour of need.
In place of knvention passports, the municipal authorities were to give these individuals a provisional carte de surete indicating that they were to remain under surveillance while the passport was being checked out. The returns of Torpey’s wide ranging study through this narrow empirical lens are, however, limited.
This change had been urged by Delacroix, who insisted that this power be od from the hands of the ministers who, in his view, were issuing the passports with which the emigres were slipping off to Coblenz to join the enemies of the revolution. Yet upon departure from the district they would have been required to have their passports visaed by the directory of the district or departement in which their municipality was situated.