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We have already discussed in detail about the basics on operational amplifier, its block diagram, symbol, different characteristics, and its circuit diagram Refer: In this post, we will be discussing about the IC, one of the most popularly used op-amp IC.
The IC is the successful predecessor of the LM IC, and the only difference between the two was dqtasheet an additional 30pF internal compensation capacitor was added for the IC. But, this simple addition has made this IC evergreen in the electronics world and is still manufactured by different companies in datasheet versions and specifications, and is made recognizable by adding the famous number in the series.
The IC is developed using the planar epitaxial process Refer: The IC is made ideal for use as integrator, summing amplifier, voltage follower and other basic applications.
The pin configuration for thse packages are shown below. The maximum ratings of the IC are specified for parameters like supply voltage, input and differential input voltages, storage and operating temeprature ranges, soldering pin temperatures, and output short circuit duration. The manufacturers advise not to exceed these maximum ratings even under the worst operating conditions.
The datasheet of the LM IC is provided here. The equivalent circuit or schematic diagram of the IC is provided in the datasheet. This equivalent circuit illustrates the internal structure of the op-amp and also helps to clarify the capabilities and limitations of the op-amp. The equivalent circuit is same for all models of the IC.
The electrical parameter specifications for the IC is provided in 2 modes.
mA Datasheet(PDF) – TI store
It is possible to operate the on a single rail supply also. This is usually done by raising the standing dc datsaheet voltage to the non-inverting input terminal to approximately half the supply voltage by a voltage divider network. The output dc voltage in such cases stands at half the supply voltage.
But this does not matter because the dc can be easily blocked by a capacitor allowing only the ac signal to be passed on to the next stage. In theory, the dc output voltage will be zero if both datasheer inputs of the IC are connected to the ground. But in practice, a small dc output may appear due to minor internal unbalances.
It is usually unnoticed in normal applications. Large common mode rejection ratio CMRR and differential voltage ranges. No external frequency compensation is required. It also does not need any external compensation for phase component. This simplifies the circuit design and minimizes the number of components used. Input offset voltage is the voltage that is applied between the two input terminals of the op-amp to null the output.
The figure is show below. In the figure V1 and V2 are the input dc voltages are Ra represents the resistance applied. The input offset voltage Vio could have a positive value or a negative value. Therefore, its absolute value is listed in the datasheet. It is always ma7741 to have smaller values of input offset voltage and this indicates that the input terminal are matched better.
Lowest values are 15uV for an ideal precison op-amp and the maximum value if 6mV dc. Input Offset Current is the algebraic difference daasheet the currents into the inverting and non-inverting terminals. The maximum input offset current value for IC is nA.
This value decreases as the matching between the two input terminals is improved and may reduce down to almost 6nA. Input bias current is the average value of the inverting and non-inverting current. Differential Input Resistance is the equivalent resistance that is measured from any one of the input terminals by keeping the other terminal connected to ground.
ANT-MA741ABI001 Data Sheet
The value for IC may go as high as 2megaohms. The typical value datqsheet IC is 1. The op-amp has pins 1 and 5 marked as offset null to determine the offset voltage adjustment range. This can be found out by connecting a 10K POT between the pin 1 negative offset null and pin 5 positive offset null and the wiper of the port should be connected to the ground. By changing the POT value, the output offset voltage can be reduced to 0V. The range through which dstasheet POT is varied to get the input offset voltage is the offset voltage adjustment range.
The same voltage when applied to both the input terminals of the IC, is called the dstasheet mode voltage and the op-amp is said to have a common mode configuration. It can also be said that the input voltage range is the range of common mode voltages over which the offset voltages apply.
This method is usually carried out to know the degree of matching between the inverting and non-inverting terminals. CMRR is the ratio of the differential voltage gain datasneet the common mode voltage gain.
If the value of CMRR is high, there is better matching between the 2 input terminals. The change in supply voltage can be denoted by dV and the corresponsing change in input ffset voltage can be denoted by dVio. The lower the value of SVRR, the better will be the op-amp performance. Large signal voltage gain is the ratio between the output voltage and the voltage difference between the two input terminals. This range shows the values of positive and negative saturation voltages of op-amp.
Output Resistance is the equivalent resistance that is measured between the output terminal Pin 6 and Ground. Typial values of output resistance of IC is 75ohms. The op-amp has a short circuit protection built in for a certain ancient value. For IC, this value is 25mA. But, for a higher current datasheett IC will fail. Nobody would knowingly connect the output of the op-amp to the ground. But if something like that is done accidentally, the current flowing through will have a high value.
This is why short circuit protection is provided. For currents higher than 25mA, external short circuit protection must be provided for IC. The supply current is the current drawn by the IC from the power supply. Ka741 value of supply datashdet IC is 2. For the IC to operate properly, a certain amount of quiescent power must be consumed by the op-amp. This power is called power consumption and typical value is 85mW. Transient response is a very important factor that is used for selecting an op-amp in ac applications.
Transient response along with steady state response constitutes that total response of a practical network to a given input. The response portion where a m7a41 value is attained right before the output datasheeet called transient response. Once reached, this fixed value remains at that level and is thus called the steady state. The steady state response does not depend on time and transient datasjeet is time invariant.
Characteristics of transient response includes rise time and percent of overshoot. Transient response is inversely proportional to the unity gain bandwidth of op-amp. The bandwidth will be high when the value of rise time is low.
Slew Rate is one of the most important parameters for selecting op-amps for high frequencies. SR is the maximum rate of change of output voltage per unit of time and is expressed in volts per microseconds. By calculating slew rate we can easily find out the rate in which the output of the op-amp changes in response to changes in the input frequency. The slew rate changes with change in voltage gain and is usually specified at unity gain.
The slew rate of an op-amp is xatasheet fixed. Hence, if the slope requirements of the output signals are greater than the slew rate, then distortion occurs. In the case of the IC the slew rate is 0. This is one reason why the IC is considered not suitable for high frequency applications, such as oscillators, comparators, dataasheet filters.
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